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Use case

Optimization of Drip Irrigation

Geographical area
Irrigation system
Marrakech on Clementine - Mandarin

These tests were carried out in Marrakech on Clementine – Mandarin under field conditions to define the impact of FLOBOND DI2010 WaterSaver on crop productivity and fruit size.
There was almost no precipitation during these tests, which is normal for this area, being semi-desert / subtropical.
The variables studied were the distribution of vertical soil moisture (capacitive probes), fruit size and productivity.
The trial was carried out under the supervision of the head of the R&D Orchards department of Les Domaines.


  • Field production conditions
  • 60 kg/ha applied from June to August 20/10/10/10/10 every 3 weeks
  • Drip Irrigation: 4 drippers (4L/h each)/tree
  • 833 trees/ha
  • Different combinations Rootstock/Graft
  • Light Clay and Loamy soils with high leaching

Yield and Fruits Size Distribution Comments

Regarding yield improvement with our FLOBOND DI2010 WaterSaver, the average increase was 19,5%, with 6 of the 6 experiments impacted positively.
Then, concerning the Fruit Size Distribution we did not take the Data of Afourer Young Plants in consideration because of outliers. (Afourer is the nickname of Nadorcott variety)
We noticed that 3 of the 5 experiments showed a significant improvement of the fruit size 1 and 2 (C1-C2), which are the biggest with a high potential value for export. This improvement must be linked to the increases in yield, which means an impressive enhancement of C1-C2 production (C1-C2% x Yield of treated).

The Nour/C.Carrizo rootstock/graft combination showed no improvement for the Fruit Size Distribution but given the yield had increased by 15,9% we concluded the number of fruit is the yield component that has been impacted by the FLOBOND rather than Fruit Size.

Last, the Nadorcott/Volkameriana combination is the only one that showed a decrease in C1-C2 fruit size, but once again we must look at the increase in yield of 26,2%, meaning that the production of C1-C2 is steady. The production of C3-C4 increased by 6% which must also be linked with the increase in yield (that means +12,4% of yield C3-C4 Treated VS C3-C4 Control with the yield increase).

Root Zone Moisture Data Explanations

The FLOBOND DI2010 WaterSaver increases the hydraulic conductivity of soil by protecting soil aggregates from collapsing. It enhances the horizontal movement of water so that more water is kept in the root zone area.

The BLUE curve shows that the soil moisture is higher and more stable with FLOBOND DI2010 WaterSaver during the hottest period, with 70 % of minimal soil water content versus 53 % for the control (GREY curve VS BLUE curve).

The GREY curve from control shows that soil moisture isn’t distributed as well as with FLOBOND, so we have less water in the root zone area. Soil moisture is therefore not stable at all which is a stress factor for the crop.
We can also notice the irregularities of the control, meaning the soil is not homogeneously wet and can more easily dry out.

When we observe the behavior of the water in the 25cm depth layer, then we find roots from the bottom of the root system. The Soil Moisture Content never drops below 43% and is quite steady on the treated (RED) while the untreated isn’t steady (YELLOW), dropping to 28% in late august. From July 15th to late September, moisture spreading is much better with FLOBOND, for both layers.

Deep Zone Moisture Data Explanations

The deep zone is a soil layer which contains absolutely no roots, all water entering that soil mass is lost.

The deep zone soil moisture analyses show the water loss by leaching beyond the root zone. This water also contains fertilizer that are lost representing a cost for the farm, as costly as the water.

The FLOBOND DI2010 WaterSaver increases the water kept in the superficial layers of soil. That’s why here we observe the soil moisture (RED and BLUE curves) is kept under 50 % during the hottest period with FLOBOND.

Conversely the YELLOW and GREY curves show the soil moisture of the deep zone with a regular irrigation. Soil moisture is never below 70 % in the hottest period which means an important loss of water by leaching.

Economic Overview

The net profits and the ROI show that the Flobond DI2010 WaterSaver has its place as a regular input in such soil-climate conditions. It is a product full of potential, patented by SNF, and which, unlike some wetting-agent (surfactants), cannot become a source of soil water repellency after repeated applications. Protecting the soil structure is also said to increase the biologic life of soils, thanks to increase water and air entry into the protected soil porosity. This matter will be studied in the coming years.

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